Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea)
A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose the following 37 new synonymies for species (35 in Nepticulidae, 2 in Opostegidae): Stigmella acerifoliella Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969 (unavailable, = S. acerna Puplesis, 1988), Stigmella nakamurai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. palionisi Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula amseli Skala, 1941 (unavailable = S. birgittae Gustafsson, 1985), Stigmella cathepostis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella populnea Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. nivenburgensis (Preissecker, 1942)), Nepticula obscurella Braun, 1912 (revised synonymy, = S. myricafoliella (Busck, 1900)), Nepticula mandingella Gustafsson, 1972 (= S. wollofella (Gustafsson, 1972)), Stigmella rosaefoliella pectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= S. centifoliella (Zeller, 1848)), Micropteryx pomivorella Packard, 1870 (= S. oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella crataegivora Puplesis, 1985 (= S. micromelis Puplesis, 1985), Stigmella scinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= S. purpuratella (Braun, 1917)), Stigmella palmatae Puplesis, 1984 (= S. filipendulae (Wocke, 1871)), Stigmella sesplicata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella rhododendrifolia Dovnar-Zapolski & Tomilova, 1978 (unavailable, = S. lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella oa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. spiculifera Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985), Stigmella gracilipae Hirano, 2014 (= S. monticulella Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula chaoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863 (= S. samiatella (Zeller, 1839)), Bohemannia piotra Puplesis, 1984 (= B. pulverosella (Stainton, 1849)), Bohemannia nipponicella Hirano, 2010 (= B. manschurella Puplesis, 1984), Sinopticula sinica Yang, 1989 (= Glaucolepis oishiella (Matsumura, 1931)), Trifurcula collinella Nel, 2012 (= Glaucolepis magna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997)), Obrussa tigrinella Puplesis, 1985 (= Etainia trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931)), Microcalyptris vittatus Puplesis, 1984 and M. arenosus Falkovitsh, 1986 (both = Acalyptris falkovitshi (Puplesis, 1984)), Ectoedemia castaneae Busck, 1913, E. heinrichi Busck, 1914 and E. helenella Wilkinson, 1981 (all three = Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878)), Ectoedemia chloranthis Meyrick, 1928 and E. acanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia grandisella (Chambers, 1880)), Ectoedemia coruscella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Zimmermannia mesoloba (Davis, 1978)), Ectoedemia piperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 and E. reneella Wilkinson, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia obrutella (Zeller, 1873)), Ectoedemia similigena Puplesis, 1994 (= E. turbidella (Zeller, 1848)), Ectoedemia andrella Wilkinson, 1981 (= E. ulmella (Braun, 1912)), Nepticula canadensis Braun, 1917 (= E. minimella (Zetterstedt, 1839)), Opostega rezniki Kozlov, 1985 (= O. cretatella Chrétien, 1915), Pseudopostega cyrneochalcopepla Nel & Varenne, 2012 (= P. chalcopepla (Walsingham, 1908)). Stigmella caryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) and Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878) are taken out of synonymy and re-instated as full species. Lectotypes are designated for Trifurcula obrutella Zeller, 1873 and Nepticula grandisella Chambers, 1880.