Papilio hermione Linnaeus, type species of Hipparchia Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae): restoring stability to the application of these names
This paper discusses three problems concerning the Woodland Grayling, Hipparchia fagi Scopoli, 1763, with respect to the identity and application of the junior name Papilio hermione Linnaeus, 1764. In 1977, the late Otakar Kudrna designated a specimen of the Rock Grayling, Hipparchia alcyone [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, to become the lectotype of Papilio hermione – as a result of which hermione supplanted alcyone as the senior epithet for this species. Because P. hermione is the nominal type species of Hipparchia Fabricius, 1807, Kudrna’s action rendered this a genus based on a misidentified species. Third, while a majority of lepidopterists have ignored Kudrna’s action and continue to apply the name H. alcyone to the Rock Grayling, and still regard P. hermione as a junior subjective synonym of H. fagi, the formal nomenclature for the Rock Grayling has become unstable because a large minority have nonetheless accepted Kudrna’s lectotype designation and all that follows from it. It is demonstrated here that no syntypes of Papilio hermione (or Papilio fagi) have survived; consequently, Kudrna’s lectotype designation for P. hermione is invalid. By designation of a single specimen of the Woodland Grayling as neotype for both P. fagi and P. hermione, the two names are rendered objectively synonymous, thereby restoring stability to the species name for the Rock Grayling (as Hipparchia alcyone), and to the application of Papilio hermione (= Hipparchia fagi) as nominal type species of the generic name Hipparchia.