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Egg development and diapause: ecophysiological and genetic basis of phenological polymorphism and adaptation to varied hosts in the Green Oak Leafroller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Auteur : Du Merle (Paul)

Année de publication : 1999
Publication : Journal of Insect Physiology
Volume : 45
Fascicule : 6
Pagination : 599-611

Résumé :

- Experiments concerned 8 tortrix populations associated with varied oak species. They showed that the egg development included a phase of diapause. Completion of embryogenesis at 20degreeC was used as a criterion for whether diapause was completed. Under semi-natural conditions diapause terminated in late autumn or early winter, then eggs developed continuously, without postdiapause winter quiescence, even in severe cold. The eggs from the populations associated with holm or cork oak completed diapause then hatched later than those from the populations associated with sessile or pubescent oak. Reciprocal crossbreedings confirmed that this phenological polymorphism was genetically determined. Under constant temperatures the physiological state of diapausing eggs, assessed by measuring their cold requirements to complete diapause by exposure to 8degreeC, varied gradually with increasing age. This diapause development was strongly temperature-dependent. Cold requirements of diapausing eggs were much higher in a late-hatching than in an early-hatching population. This explains the phenological polymorphism of the tortrix: the more eggs need cold, the later they complete diapause in autumn, and the later they hatch in spring. Egg cold requirements varied widely within populations too, which resulted in large variations in the date of diapause end among individuals. The date of egg hatch was influenced by the temperatures occurring during diapause and postdiapause, but apparently not by photoperiod