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Repeated larval diapause and diapause-free development in geographic strains of the Burnet Moth Zygaena trifolii Esp. (Insecta, Lepidoptera). 1. Discontinuous clinal variation in photoperiodically controlled diapause induction

Auteur : Wipking (Wolfgang)


Année de publication : 1988
Publication : Oecologia
Volume : 77
Fascicule : 4
Pagination : 557-564


Résumé :

Zygaena trifolii is a "long-day insect" with temperature-dependent photoperiodic responses. All larval instarts are sensitive to photoperiod; however, diapause may occur at the third larval stage or any subsequent larval instars. There were quantitative differences within populations in the threshold photoperiod for diapause induction. The diapause response was polymorphic, so that larvae might enter diapause at different instars under the same culture conditions. Furthermore, decreasing photoperiods below a critical daylength shifted the diapausing instar towards earlier stages. Geographic strains of Z. trifolii showed discontinuous clinal variation. Near the northern edge of the distribution [Cologne (Koeln), FRG], there is first an obligatory diapause, mainly during early instars, and additional facultative ("repeat") diapauses during later larval instars in subsequent years. In the southern part of its distribution, this burnet moth is partially bivoltine in the field with a facultative first developmental arrest and a decreased capacity for repeated diapause (Valencia, Spain; Marseille, France). Further experiments indicated that the photoperiodically controlled diapause reaction is also influenced by the number of photoperiodic cycles experienced during the period spent in each larval instar, which depends on temperature. The adaptive significance of obligatory and facultative repeated diapause, varying even among the offspring of a single female, may be to buffer the populations against the more extreme and, from year to year, unpredictable fluctuations in climatic conditions at the northern edge of the distribution