The Bupleurum (Apiaceae) feeding species of Trifurcula (Glaucolepis): new species, biology and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)
The Bupleurum feeding species of Trifurcula (Glaucolepis) Braun, 1917 are revised. Five species are recognised: T. bupleurella (Chrétien, 1907), T. sanctibenedicti Klimesch, 1979, T. megaphallus van Nieukerken, Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka sp. n. feeding on Bupleurum gibraltarium in southern Spain, T. chretieni Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken sp. n. feeding on Bupleurum rigidum in southern France, Spain and Portugal, and T. siciliae Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken sp. n. feeding on B. fruticosum in Sicily. The group is restricted to southwestern Europe and northern Africa, the area where most shrubby Bupleurum species occur. A NJ and Bayesian analysis of DNA barcodes of four out of five species suggest a single origin of Bupleurum feeding in the subgenus Glaucolepis.